Definition of wrinkle:
- Wrinkle – A small line, furrow, ridge, or crease surrounded by a smooth surface. Wrinkles gets created by folding, shrinking or contraction of part of a smooth surface.
- Wrinkles are very common in the skin especially when due to age, worry or fatigue.
- Wrinkling – process of creating folds or small lines on a smooth material by moving, shrinking parts of area.
- to wrinkle a brow – to create a lines on a face above the eyes. In most cases it represents a surprise or confusion.
The maximum human lifespan is suggested to be 115 years.
Age of 25 - 34
the wrinkles when you smile or frown start to become a little more permanent.
Age of 35 - 44
the lower half of your face gets skinnier and the wrinkles seem to be getting a little deeper.
Age of 45 - 54
The skin appears to sag, there is a noticeable loss of facial volume, the skin naturally becomes less supple and the facial bone density decreases. The eye sockets may be slightly wider and the skin at the jawline appears more saggy.
Age of 55 - ...
Wrinkles have turned to folds, because dehydrated skin is more susceptible to wrinkling.
The human body and aging changes
The human body is constantly changing from the very moment of conception. Man grows the fastest until 3 years of age, and the next spike in growth occurs in adolescence. Growth depends, among others on living conditions, health and lifestyle. Women reach their maximum height at the age of 18, and men grow until they are around 25. It’s part of aging process which is mostly visible on human’s skin.
The body’s growth process also influences the future formation of wrinkles. Too much fat tissue has a significant impact on the formation of wrinkles in old age in both men and women. Female faces age—on average—about twice as fast as male faces. Man gets wrinkles later in age, because of smaller amount of fat under the skin on their face.
To date, much research has been done to understand the molecular mechanisms of skin aging, but there is still a lack of detailed information on the clinical onset of facial wrinkles.
Multiple reasons why men get wrinkles:
- Hormones – the elasticity of the skin is reduced with loss of testosterone levels with age and this could lead to wrinkles.
- Skin Color – melanin – the main skin coloring pigment helps to protect the skin against the harmful rays of sunlight which increase amount and level of wrinkles. Darker skin gets less wrinkles.
- Sun Exposure – ultraviolet UVA and UVB rays are the most damaging to the skin. Damage to the skin by Sun rays is influenced by age, skin color and total exposure time.
- Weight Fluctuations – loss of the subcutaneous fat makes wrinkles look more noticeable.
- Gravity – frown lines, those between the eyebrows, and crow’s feet, the lines that radiate from the corners of the eyes, develop early because of week muscles in that area.
- Genes – most of the wrinkles are inherited.
- Smoking – there are research providing evidence that smoking damages the skin and causes increased facial aging.
Not only wrinkles are characteristic signs of aging:
- Loss of muscle and bone mass,
- Loss of functionally active cells in various organs and their replacement by connective tissue (fatty liver),
- Transforming the structure and functions of the skin leading to the weakening of its role as a protective barrier of the body,
Development of wrinkles mainly due to photoageing, particularly affecting sun-exposed areas (face).
- Deterioration of visual acuity and hearing.
People over 35 years of age lose strength in the ciliary muscle which leads to difficulty focusing on close objects, or presbyopia.
Teenagers lose the young child’s ability to hear high-frequency sounds
above 20 kHz.
- Extended reaction time caused by a decrease in the average cell conduction velocity from 100% at the age of 40 to 85% over the age of 80,
- Decrease in basal metabolism from 100% at the age of 40 to approx. 80% over 80, impaired liver function, decreased enzyme activity,
- Percentage increase in body fat and decrease in water content,
- Decrease in the maximum lungs capacity from 100% at the age of around 30 to around 40% over the age of 80,
- Decrease in renal plasma flow from 100% at around 30 years of age to around 50% over 80 years of age; blood flow to other organs is also reduced,
- Lowering the acidity of gastric juice,
- Decrease in intestinal peristalsis,
- Reduction of the total area of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and thus the absorption from the intestines is reduced,
- Reduction of serum albumin.
How to avoid wrinkles?
The elasticity of the skin – apart from age – is influenced by many factors. They include, among others the level of body hydration, sun radiation, sleep and the healthy life style.
The skin grows to keep pace with the growth and development of bones and internal organs. This process is facilitated by the collagen found in the skin. It is collagen’s role to allow the skin to stretch and contract without wrinkles or cracks.
Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue. It is a protein supporting the skin, ensuring its proper tension and elasticity. It is 1/3 of all proteins in the human body. It is the most important structural protein, very resistant to stretching.
Research by scientists from the University of Rochester Medical Center in the US shows that the facial skeleton changes with age. The eye sockets enlarge, the angle of the bones below the eyebrows changes, which may affect the formation of wrinkles on the forehead and “crow’s feet” in the corners of the eyes or drooping of the lower eyelids.
The lower part of the face is also changing. Researchers noted changes in the angle of the bones of the forehead, nose and upper jaw in relation to each other, as well as a reduction in the length and height of the lower jaw. These changes have been detected in both sexes, but – as studies have shown – many of them appear earlier in women than in men.
What is more, as a result of the loss of fat and the movement of collagen into the deep layers of the skin, and the sagging muscles of the face, the skin begins to sag more and more under the influence of gravity. These processes lead to the formation of mimic wrinkles and affect changes, especially around the eyes. As a result of the loss of skin elasticity, the eyelids begin to drop, swelling, dark circles and wrinkles appear. Most of these symptoms can be seen in your forties, but the process begins much earlier.
New technologies like 3D analysis provide key value in assessing research results. Some of the research, measured the severity of orbital wrinkles and forehead lines.
Results show that the severity of wrinkles was greater in all assessed locations with age, but there were differences between men and women.
Men: the wrinkles appeared earlier and were more intense.
Women: the earliest wrinkles appeared around the eyes.
None the less, in both sexes, forehead lines did not show up before the age of 40.
Key skin care routines:
- Keep the skin moisturized
After a thorough cleansing, protect the skin from losing it’s elasticity by moisturizing.
- Protect the skin from Sun radiation
Protection from ultraviolet UVA and UVB rays is a key to healthy skin for long time. The Sun is important for living on earth, but has damaging effect as well. The Sun rays accelerate the skin aging process.
- Use of Anti-Aging Products
Dermatologists recommend using creams that slow down the aging process. Specific formula of retinol and peptides can help to keep your skin healthy.
Retinol: help treat acne, hyper-pigmentation and generate collagen and elastin by the skin cells.
Peptides: provide support to the structure of your skin and keep it firm.
The results of the conducted research confirmed that facial wrinkles appear earlier and are more intense in men. Moreover, it can be stated that the perimenopausal period has a particular influence on the development of wrinkles in women.
Moreover, wrinkles are impacted by amount of fat and life style especially at young age.